Anti-anxiety, anti-stress, anti-alcohol, anticonvulsants, nootropic, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory
Emoxypine act as a nootropic, that is able to help the concentration and improve knowledge. Emoxypine do not behave like other types of nootropics that affect or alter the behavior of various neurotransmitters in the brain such as serotonin and norepinephrine.
Instead, it works by protecting neurons from low oxygen and low glucose adjusting the level of oxygen in the brain, while the increase of blood flow to the brain. It also increases the level of dopamine in the brain that could help improve cognitive skills. Emoxypine provides neuroprotective effects.
Compared to its nootropic behavior, emoxypine helps further increase focus and improve learning and memory by protecting neurons from damaging free radicals that can cause damage to the neurons of the brain. Another advantage of emoxypine is its anxiolytic effects. In previous studies, it was observed that emoxypine helps reduce feelings of anxiety. Also, there were no side effects (such as sedation), that are commonly associated with anxiolytic drugs. This drug is known to have anti-stress effects. It is used by patients during their period of post-stress to help normalize and improve their behavior.
Emoxypine is also known for its antioxidant properties. Consequently, the main means of emoxypine of activity is its membrane-protective and antioxidant results. It improves the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase particularly while it also inhibits the activity of free radicals that can cause damage to health. Emoxypine also displays anti-inflammatory properties. It can reduce the severity of pain and can affect further rapid recovery of function of peripheral nerves, and even the spinal roots. In a study conducted in the past, anti-inflammatory effects of emoxypine have been shown to significantly reduce back pain involved in lumbosacral radiculopathy.
Emoxypine exhibits anti-alcohol dependence influence. It decreases alcohol intoxication and can help prevent and even reverse the damage caused by constant frequent consumption of alcohol. It also provides relief from the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Also performs direct effect coronarolytic while emoxypine can increase coronary blood flow which is beneficial for patients with coronary artery disease. It shows the lipid-lowering action as it stabilizes lipid synthesis by decreasing LDL or bad cholesterol, increasing HDL or good cholesterol. Further improves the condition of patients with coronary artery disease by normalizing oxidative stress. This drug shows cardioprotective effects. And 'it is known to inhibit the effects of ischemia, a condition that causes severe damage to the brain and heart tissue. It has anti-ischemic effects by normalizing the metabolic processes in the ischemic myocardium while improving coronary blood flow and myocardial contraction. Emoxypine can also improve visual acuity, improving the function of the optic nerve and retina. It is also observed that this drug inhibits platelet aggregation. Emoxypine is also known for its anti-hypoxia, anti-atherosclerosis and anticonvulsant action mechanisms.
Emoxypine's mechanism of action is believed to be its antioxidant and membrane-protective effects with the following key components:
• Emoxypine effectively inhibits free radical oxidation of biomembrane lipids, reacts to peroxide radicals of lipids primary and hydroxyl radical of peptides
• Increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes, specifically that of superoxide dismutase, responsible for the formation and consumption of lipid peroxides and active oxygen forms
• Inhibits free radicals during the synthesis of prostaglandin catalyzed cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, increases the correlation prostacyclin/ thromboxane A2 and blocks the leukotriene formation
• Increases the content of polar fraction of lipids (phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol) and reduces the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio which proves its lipid-regulatory properties; shifts structure transition into the low temperature zones, that is provokes the reduction of membrane viscosity and the increase of its fluidity, increases lipid-protein ratio.
• Modulates the activity of membrane-bound enzymes: phosphodiesterase, cyclic nucleotides, adenylate cyclase, aldoreductase, acetylcholinesterase.
• Modulates the receptor complexes of the brain membranes, i.e. benzodiazepine, GABA, acetylcholine receptors by increasing their binding ability.
• Stabilizes biomembranes, i.e. membrane structures of blood cells - erythrocytes and thrombocytes during their haemolysis or mechanical injury accompanied by the formation of free radicals.
• Changes the monoamine level and increases the dopamine content in the brain.